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Municipal Wastewater Disposal

Effective treatment and disposal of municipal wastewater is required for the protection of public health and of the environment.

Mixing zone analysis is an essential component of predicting flow behavior and pollutant assimilation.

Regulatory mixing zones may occur in the near-field or in the far-field after boundary interaction occurs.

In many areas, coastal discharge of wastewater with only primary or advanced primary treatment is considered the best available technology.

Design and Modeling of Ocean Wastewater Disposal Systems

Proper outfall siting and design is required for efficient wastewater treatment by utilization of the natural assimilative capacity of coastal waters.

Designs which used ambient density stratification trap flow in internal density current layers may be particularly advisable to avoid mixing zones with both high nutrients and available light.

The CORMIX v9.0GT advanced tools CorSens, CorVue, and CorSpy can assist the analyst in outfall design specification.

A coastal wastewater discharge.
A coastal wastewater discharge attracts aquatic life. The CORMIX system gives comprehensive and documented mixing zone analysis, essential for environmental protection, regulatory analysis, and engineering design. (Source Unknown)

A buoyant jet is trapped by a density stratified stagnant ambient.
A buoyant jet is trapped by a density stratified stagnant ambient (Source: Fan, CIT). Because there is no ambient velocity in stagnant conditions, CORMIX will give only near-field dilutions. Dilution after boundary interaction in stagnant ambients is unsteady and depends upon local geometry.
Images of Municipal Wastewater Outfalls
Orange County, California Municipal wastewater outfall
This plan view of the Orange County, California ocean municipal wastewater outfall shows upstream density current behavior.

Municipal wastewater outfall under construction in Rio DeJaneiro, Brazil
A municipal wastewater outfall under construction in Rio DeJaneiro, Brazil.

Wastewater outfall under construction in New Zealand
Wastewater outfall under construction in New Zealand (Photo: I. Wood)

Alternating multiport diffuser under construction.
Municipal wastewater alternating multiport diffuser outfall under construction on Lake Cayuga, New York (Photo: G. Jirka).